La dieta cetogénica ha vuelto a ponerse de moda y a despertar el interés y la curiosidad de mucha gente en internet y en las redes sociales. Se trata de un tipo de dieta basada en reducir notablemente la ingesta de hidratos de carbono, con el fin de favorecer la oxidación de las grasas y producir cuerpos cetónicos. En síntesis, el objetivo es alcanzar un estado metabólico denominado cetosis.

Lista de alimentos permitidos

Existen dietas cetogénicas que recurren al ayuno para fomentar la producción de cuerpos cetogénicos y la quema de grasas. También las hay que permiten consumir pequeñas cantidades de frutas y/o vegetales y que restringen completamente los hidratos de carbono.

La dieta cetogénica se centra en el consumo de grasas y proteínas. Así pues, en la lista de alimentos permitidos figurarían:

  • El pescado (atún, salmón, caballa, bacalao…).
  • El marisco.
  • La carne (cordero, cabra, res, aves de corral…).
  • Los huevos.
  • El aguacate.
  • El aceite de coco y el de oliva.
  • Los frutos secos (nueces, almendras, castañas, anacardos, pistachos…).
  • Las semillas (lino, calabaza, girasol, chía…).
  • El jamón.
  • Los quesos (cheddar, brie, cottage…).
  • La mantequilla.
  • Los edulcorantes.
  • Las especias.

Menú de ejemplo: paso a paso

Generalmente, las grasas, el micronutriente de referencia en una dieta cetogénica, representan el 60-65% de las calorías, mientras que el porcentaje de carbohidratos suele ser inferior al 10%. Para no superar nuestras necesidades calóricas diarias y perder grasa, hay que tener en cuenta factores como la edad, el peso y el metabolismo basal, entre otros.

Planificar una dieta cetogénica de acuerdo a las características individuales, requiere realizar una serie de cálculos para alcanzar un nivel adecuado de cetosis y no adelgazar más allá del peso ideal. A continuación, veremos un ejemplo de menú diario orientativo para que te hagas una idea de lo que habría que comer en una dieta cetogénica.

El desayuno estaría compuesto por:

  • Un par de huevos revueltos con jamón ibérico y aceite de oliva, un puñado de aceitunas y una taza de té verde.

La comida incluiría:

  • Ternera o pollo en salsa, queso y un yogur.

En la cena se podría tomar:

  • Atún, salmón, bacalao o cualquier otro pescado a la plancha acompañado de ensalada y aderezado con aceite de oliva, zumo de limón con agua y una gelatina light.

Duración: ¿30 ó 50 días?

Hay dietas cetogénicas de 30 y de 50 días divididos en etapas o tramos. Sin embargo, es muy importante tener presente que no se recomienda iniciar una dieta cetogénica sin supervisión médica ni mantenerla durante mucho tiempo. No conviene hacer cetosis sin consultar a un profesional de la salud, y mucho menos si se sufren problemas cardíacos o hepáticos.

¿Da resultados? ¿Funciona?

Con las dietas cetogénicas se puede conseguir perder peso y reducir significativamente el porcentaje de grasa corporal, manteniendo la masa muscular. Su impacto sobre el peso, a igual o semejante aporte calórico, es similar al de las dietas que no son cetogénicas.

Tienen una gran capacidad saciante y pueden evitar los ataques de hambre. Pero no todo son ventajas. Al escaso aporte de fibra, minerales y vitaminas de estas dietas se suma la difícil adherencia a la misma.

Por la falta de hidratos de carbono en la dieta, es frecuente sufrir cansancio y fatiga, así como estreñimiento y halitosis.

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